Lesson 4: More About Triggers   Leave a comment

Like jobs, triggers are relatively easy to work with, but do contain
a variety of customizable options that you need to be aware of and
understand before you can make full use of Quartz. Also, as noted
earlier, there are different types of triggers, that you can select to
meet different scheduling needs.


Quartz Calendar objects (not java.util.Calendar
objects) can be associated with triggers at the time the trigger is
stored in the scheduler. Calendars are useful for excluding blocks of
time from the the trigger’s firing schedule. For instance, you could
create a trigger that fires a job every weekday at 9:30 am, but then
add a Calendar that excludes all of the business’s holidays.

Calendar’s can be any serializable objects that implement the Calendar interface, which looks like this:

Calendar Interface
package org.quartz;

public interface Calendar {

public boolean isTimeIncluded(long timeStamp);

public long getNextIncludedTime(long timeStamp);


Notice that the parameters to these methods are of the long type. As
you may guess, they are timestamps in millisecond format. This means
that calendars can ‘block out’ sections of time as narrow as a
millisecond. Most likely, you’ll be interested in ‘blocking-out’ entire
days. As a convenience, Quartz includes the class
org.quartz.impl.HolidayCalendar, which does just that.

Calendars must be instantiated and registered with the scheduler via
the addCalendar(..) method. If you use HolidayCalendar, after
instantiating it, you should use its addExcludedDate(Date date) method
in order to populate it with the days you wish to have excluded from
scheduling. The same calendar instance can be used with multiple
triggers such as this:

Using Calendars
HolidayCalendar cal = new HolidayCalendar();
cal.addExcludedDate( someDate );

sched.addCalendar("myHolidays", cal, false);

Trigger trigger = TriggerUtils.makeHourlyTrigger(); // fire every one hour interval
trigger.setStartTime(TriggerUtils.getEvenHourDate(new Date())); // start on the next even hour


// .. schedule job with trigger

Trigger trigger2 = TriggerUtils.makeDailyTrigger(8, 0); // fire every day at 08:00
trigger.setStartTime(new Date()); // begin immediately


// .. schedule job with trigger2

The details of the values passed in the SimpleTrigger constructors
will be explained in the next section. For now, just believe that the
code above creates two triggers: one that will repeat every 60 seconds
forever, and one that will repeat five times with a five day interval
between firings. However, any of the firings that would have occurred
during the period excluded by the calendar will be skipped.

Priority (v1.6)

Sometimes, when you have many Triggers (or few worker threads in
your Quartz thread pool), Quartz may not have enough resources to
immediately fire all of the Triggers that are scheduled to fire at the
same time.  In this case, you may want to control which of your
Triggers get first crack at the available Quartz worker threads.  For
this purpose, you can set the priority property on a
Trigger.  If N Triggers are to fire at the same time, but there are
only Z worker threads currently available, then the first Z Triggers
with the highest priority will get first dibs.  If you do not
set a priority on a Trigger, then it will use the default priority of
5.  Any integer value is allowed for priority, positive or negative.

Note: When a Trigger is detected to require recovery, its recovery is scheduled with the same priority as the original Trigger.

Priority Example
// All three Triggers will be scheduled to fire 5 minutes from now.
Calendar cal = Calendar.getInstance();
cal.add(Calendar.MINUTE, 5);

Trigger trig1 = new SimpleTrigger("T1", "MyGroup", cal.getTime());
Trigger trig2 = new SimpleTrigger("T2", "MyGroup", cal.getTime());
Trigger trig3 = new SimpleTrigger("T3", "MyGroup", cal.getTime());

JobDetail jobDetail = new JobDetail("MyJob", "MyGroup", NoOpJob.class);

// Trigger1 does not have its priority set, so it defaults to 5
sched.scheduleJob(jobDetail, trig1);

// Trigger2 has its priority set to 10

// Trigger2 has its priority set to 1

// Five minutes from now, when the scheduler invokes these three triggers
// they will be allocated worker threads in decreasing order of their
// priority: Trigger2(10), Trigger1(5), Trigger3(1)

Misfire Instructions

Another important property of a Trigger is its "misfire
instruction". A misfire occurs if a persistent trigger "misses" its
firing time because of the scheduler being shutdown, or because there
are no available threads in Quartz’s thread pool for executing the job.
The different trigger types have different misfire instructions
available to them. By default they use a ‘smart policy’ instruction –
which has dynamic behavior based on trigger type and configuration.
When the scheduler starts, it searches for any persistent triggers that
have misfired, and it then updates each of them based on their
individually configured misfire instructions. When you start using
Quartz in your own projects, you should make yourself familiar with the
misfire instructions that are defined on the given trigger types, and
explained in their JavaDoc. More specific information about misfire
instructions will be given within the tutorial lessons specific to each
trigger type. The misfire instruction for a given trigger instance can
be configured using the setMisfireInstruction(..) method.

TriggerUtils – Triggers Made Easy

The TriggerUtils class (in the org.quartz package) contains
conveniences to help you create triggers and dates without having to
monkey around with java.util.Calendar objects. Use this class to easily
make triggers that fire every minute, hour, day, week, month, etc. Also
use this class to generate dates that are rounded to the nearest
second, minute or hour – this can be very useful for setting trigger


Finally, triggers may have registered listeners, just as jobs may. Objects implementing the TriggerListener interface will receive notifications as a trigger is fired.

Posted 2009年11月3日 by gw8310 in Computers and Internet


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