Lesson 9: JobStores   Leave a comment

JobStore’s are responsible for keeping track of all the "work data"
that you give to the scheduler: jobs, triggers, calendars, etc.
Selecting the appropriate JobStore for your Quartz scheduler instance
is an important step. Luckily, the choice should be a very easy one
once you understand the differences between them. You declare which
JobStore your scheduler should use (and it’s configuration settings) in
the properties file (or object) that you provide to the
SchedulerFactory that you use to produce your scheduler instance.

Never use a JobStore instance directly in your code. For some reason
many people attempt to do this. The JobStore is for behind-the-scenes
use of Quartz itself. You have to tell Quartz (through configuration)
which JobStore to use, but then you should only work with the Scheduler
interface in your code.


RAMJobStore is the simplest JobStore to use, it is also the most
performant (in terms of CPU time). RAMJobStore gets its name in the
obvious way: it keeps all of its data in RAM. This is why it’s
lightning-fast, and also why it’s so simple to configure. The drawback
is that when your application ends (or crashes) all of the scheduling
information is lost – this means RAMJobStore cannot honor the setting
of "non-volatility" on jobs and triggers. For some applications this is
acceptable – or even the desired behavior, but for other applications,
this may be disasterous.

To use RAMJobStore (and assuming you’re using StdSchedulerFactory)
simply specify the class name org.quartz.simpl.RAMJobStore as the
JobStore class property that you use to configure quartz:

Configuring Quartz to use RAMJobStore
org.quartz.jobStore.class = org.quartz.simpl.RAMJobStore

There are no other settings you need to worry about.


JDBCJobStore is also aptly named – it keeps all of its data in a
database via JDBC. Because of this it is a bit more complicated to
configure than RAMJobStore, and it also is not as fast. However, the
performance draw-back is not terribly bad, especially if you build the
database tables with indexes on the primary keys. On a 800MHz Windows
box running a Quartz application utilizing Oracle running on a
not-so-new Solaris box, the time to retreive and update a firing
trigger and its associated job has been measured at about 15

JDBCJobStore works with nearly any database, it has been used widely
with Oracle, MySQL, MS SQLServer2000, HSQLDB, PostreSQL and DB2. To use
JDBCJobStore, you must first create a set of database tables for Quartz
to use. You can find table-creation SQL scripts in the "docs/dbTables"
directory of the Quartz distribution. If there is not already a script
for your database type, just look at one of the existing ones, and
modify it in any way necessary for your DB. One thing to note is that
in these scripts, all the the tables start with the prefix "QRTZ_"
(such as the tables "QRTZ_TRIGGERS", and "QRTZ_JOB_DETAIL"). This
prefix can actually be anything you’d like, as long as you inform
JDBCJobStore what the prefix is (in your Quartz properties). Using
different prefixes may be useful for creating multiple sets of tables,
for multiple scheduler instances, within the same database.

Once you’ve got the tables created, you have one more major decision
to make before configuring and firing up JDBCJobStore. You need to
decide what type of transactions your application needs. If you don’t
need to tie your scheduling commands (such as adding and removing
triggers) to other transactions, then you can let Quartz manage the
transaction by using JobStoreTX as your JobStore (this is the most common selection).

If you need Quartz to work along with other transactions (i.e. within a J2EE application server), then you should use JobStoreCMT – in which case Quartz will let the app server container manage the transactions.

The last piece of the puzzle is setting up a DataSource from which
JDBCJobStore can get connections to your database. DataSources are
defined in your Quartz properties using one of a few different
approaches. One approach is to have Quartz create and manage the
DataSource itself – by providing all of the connection information for
the database. Another approach is to have Quartz use a DataSource that
is managed by an application server that Quartz is running inside of –
by providing JDBCJobStore the JNDI name of the DataSource. For details
on the properties, consult the example config files in the
"docs/config" folder.

To use JDBCJobStore (and assuming you’re using StdSchedulerFactory)
you first need to set the JobStore class property of your Quartz
configuration to be either org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.JobStoreTX or
org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.JobStoreCMT – depending on the selection
you made based on the explanations in the above few paragraphs.

Configuring Quartz to use JobStoreTx
org.quartz.jobStore.class = org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.JobStoreTX

Next, you need to select a DriverDelegate for the JobStore to use.
The DriverDelegate is responsible for doing any JDBC work that may be
needed for your specific database. StdJDBCDelegate is a delegate that
uses "vanilla" JDBC code (and SQL statements) to do its work. If there
isn’t another delegate made specifically for your database, try using
this delgate – we’ve only made database-specific delegates for
databases that we’ve found problems using StdJDBCDelegate with (which
seems to be most .
Other delegates can be found in the "org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore"
package, or in its sub-packages. Other delegates include DB2v6Delegate
(for DB2 version 6 and earlier), HSQLDBDelegate (for HSQLDB),
MSSQLDelegate (for microsoft SQLServer 2000), PostgreSQLDelegate (for
PostgreSQL 7.x), WeblogicDelegate (for using JDBC drivers made by
Weblogic), and OracleDelegate (for using Oracle 8i and 9i).

Once you’ve selected your delegate, set its class name as the delegate for JDBCJobStore to use.

Configuring JDBCJobStore to use a DriverDelegate
org.quartz.jobStore.driverDelegateClass = org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.StdJDBCDelegate

Next, you need to inform the JobStore what table prefix (discussed above) you are using.

Configuring JDBCJobStore with the Table Prefix
org.quartz.jobStore.tablePrefix = QRTZ_

And finally, you need to set which DataSource should be used by the
JobStore. The named DataSource must also be defined in your Quartz
properties. In this case, we’re specifying that Quartz should use the
DataSource name "myDS" (that is defined elsewhere in the configuration

Configuring JDBCJobStore with the name of the DataSource to use
org.quartz.jobStore.dataSource = myDS

If your Scheduler is very busy (i.e. nearly always executing the
same number of jobs as the size of the thread pool, then you should
probably set the number of connections in the DataSource to be the
about the size of the thread pool + 1.

The "org.quartz.jobStore.useProperties" config parameter can be set
to "true" (defaults to false) in order to instruct JDBCJobStore that
all values in JobDataMaps will be Strings, and therefore can be stored
as name-value pairs, rather than storing more complex objects in their
serialized form in the BLOB column. This is much safer in the long
term, as you avoid the class versioning issues that there are with
serializing your non-String classes into a BLOB.


Posted 2009年11月3日 by gw8310 in Computers and Internet


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