escape vs encodeURI vs encodeURIComponent   2 comments


Table of ContentsTable of ContentsQuestion: How do I convert a string to URL-encoding?

Answer: You can convert a string to the URL-encoded form (suitable for transmission as a query string or, generally speaking, as part of a URL) using the JavaScript functionsescapeencodeURI and encodeURIComponent. Below is a detailed discussion of these functions. See also: Greek LettersSpecial and Mathematical SymbolsAccented Characters and Ligatures.

escape   In all browsers that support JavaScript, you can use the escape function. This function works as follows: digits, Latin letters and the characters + - * / . _ @ remain unchanged; all other characters in the original string are replaced by escape-sequences%XX, where XX is the ASCII code of the original character. Example:

escape("It's me!") // result: It%27s%20me%21

For Unicode input strings, the function escape has a more complex behavior. If the input is a Unicode string, then non-ASCII Unicode characters will be converted to the Unicode escape-sequences %uXXXX. For example, escape will encode the capital Cyrillic letter A as %u0410. To decode strings encoded with escape, use the JavaScript functionunescape.

encodeURI and encodeURIComponent   In addition to escape, modern browsers support two more functions for URL-encoding: encodeURI and encodeURIComponent. These functions are similar to escape, except that they leave intact some characters that escapeencodes (e.g. apostrophe, tilde, parentheses); moreover, encodeURIComponent encodes some characters (+ / @) that escape leaves intact. Unlike escape, the functionsencodeURI and encodeURIComponent do not produce %uXXXX for Unicode input; instead, they produce %XX%XX or %XX%XX%XX. For example, encodeURI andencodeURIComponent will encode the capital Cyrillic letter A as %D0%90, and the euro sign (€) as %E2%82%AC. To decode strings encoded with encodeURI andencodeURIComponent, use the JavaScript functions decodeURI anddecodeURIComponent, respectively.

The following tables illustrate the differences between escapeencodeURI, andencodeURIComponent for

Differences between encodeURI, encodeURIComponent, and escape:
lower ASCII characters (codes 1-127)

chr     escape(chr)   encodeURI(chr)  encodeURIComponent(chr)
 _          _              _               _
 -          -              -               -
 .          .              .               .
 *          *              *               *
 +          +              +               %2B
 /          /              /               %2F
 @          @              @               %40
 ~          %7E            ~               ~
 !          %21            !               !
 '          %27            '               '
 (          %28            (               (
 )          %29            )               )
 #          %23            #               %23
 $          %24            $               %24
 &          %26            &               %26
 ,          %2C            ,               %2C
 :          %3A            :               %3A
 ;          %3B            ;               %3B
 =          %3D            =               %3D
 ?          %3F            ?               %3F

all other lower-ASCII characters produce identical results:

space       %20            %20             %20
 "          %22            %22             %22
 %          %25            %25             %25
 <          %3C            %3C             %3C
 >          %3E            %3E             %3E
 [          %5B            %5B             %5B
 \          %5C            %5C             %5C
 ]          %5D            %5D             %5D
 ^          %5E            %5E             %5E
 {          %7B            %7B             %7B
 |          %7C            %7C             %7C
 }          %7D            %7D             %7D
...         ...            ...             ...

Differences between encodeURI, encodeURIComponent, and escape:
upper ASCII characters (codes 128-255)

As shown in the table below, encodeURIencodeURIComponent, and escape produce different results for upper ASCII characters. For example, the non-breaking space character (ASCII-code 0xA0, or 160) will be encoded as %A0 if you use escape, and %C2%A0 if you use encodeURI or encodeURIComponent. The small ü or u-umlaut letter (ASCII-code 0xFC, or 252) will be encoded as%FC if you use escape, and %C3%BC if you use encodeURI or encodeURIComponent.

chr    escape(chr)   encodeURI(chr)  encodeURIComponent(chr)
  	    %A0	        %C2%A0	        %C2%A0
 ¡	    %A1	        %C2%A1	        %C2%A1
 ¢	    %A2	        %C2%A2	        %C2%A2
 £	    %A3	        %C2%A3	        %C2%A3
 ¤	    %A4	        %C2%A4	        %C2%A4
 ¥	    %A5	        %C2%A5	        %C2%A5
 ¦	    %A6	        %C2%A6	        %C2%A6
 §	    %A7	        %C2%A7	        %C2%A7
 ¨	    %A8	        %C2%A8	        %C2%A8
 ©	    %A9	        %C2%A9	        %C2%A9
 ª	    %AA	        %C2%AA	        %C2%AA
 «	    %AB	        %C2%AB	        %C2%AB
 ¬	    %AC	        %C2%AC	        %C2%AC
soft hyphen %AD	        %C2%AD	        %C2%AD
 ®	    %AE	        %C2%AE	        %C2%AE
 ¯	    %AF	        %C2%AF	        %C2%AF
 °	    %B0	        %C2%B0	        %C2%B0
 ±	    %B1	        %C2%B1	        %C2%B1
 ²	    %B2	        %C2%B2	        %C2%B2
 ³	    %B3	        %C2%B3	        %C2%B3
 ´	    %B4	        %C2%B4	        %C2%B4
 µ	    %B5	        %C2%B5	        %C2%B5
 ¶	    %B6	        %C2%B6	        %C2%B6
 ·	    %B7	        %C2%B7	        %C2%B7
 ¸	    %B8	        %C2%B8	        %C2%B8
 ¹	    %B9	        %C2%B9	        %C2%B9
 º	    %BA	        %C2%BA	        %C2%BA
 »	    %BB	        %C2%BB	        %C2%BB
 ¼	    %BC	        %C2%BC	        %C2%BC
 ½	    %BD	        %C2%BD	        %C2%BD
 ¾	    %BE	        %C2%BE	        %C2%BE
 ¿	    %BF	        %C2%BF	        %C2%BF
 À	    %C0	        %C3%80	        %C3%80
 Á	    %C1	        %C3%81	        %C3%81
 Â	    %C2	        %C3%82	        %C3%82
 Ã	    %C3	        %C3%83	        %C3%83
 Ä	    %C4	        %C3%84	        %C3%84
 Å	    %C5	        %C3%85	        %C3%85
 Æ	    %C6	        %C3%86	        %C3%86
 Ç	    %C7	        %C3%87	        %C3%87
 È	    %C8	        %C3%88	        %C3%88
 É	    %C9	        %C3%89	        %C3%89
 Ê	    %CA	        %C3%8A	        %C3%8A
 Ë	    %CB	        %C3%8B	        %C3%8B
 Ì	    %CC	        %C3%8C	        %C3%8C
 Í	    %CD	        %C3%8D	        %C3%8D
 Î	    %CE	        %C3%8E	        %C3%8E
 Ï	    %CF	        %C3%8F	        %C3%8F
 Ð	    %D0	        %C3%90	        %C3%90
 Ñ	    %D1	        %C3%91	        %C3%91
 Ò	    %D2	        %C3%92	        %C3%92
 Ó	    %D3	        %C3%93	        %C3%93
 Ô	    %D4	        %C3%94	        %C3%94
 Õ	    %D5	        %C3%95	        %C3%95
 Ö	    %D6	        %C3%96	        %C3%96
 ×	    %D7	        %C3%97	        %C3%97
 Ø	    %D8	        %C3%98	        %C3%98
 Ù	    %D9	        %C3%99	        %C3%99
 Ú	    %DA	        %C3%9A	        %C3%9A
 Û	    %DB	        %C3%9B	        %C3%9B
 Ü	    %DC	        %C3%9C	        %C3%9C
 Ý	    %DD	        %C3%9D	        %C3%9D
 Þ	    %DE	        %C3%9E	        %C3%9E
 ß	    %DF	        %C3%9F	        %C3%9F
 à	    %E0	        %C3%A0	        %C3%A0
 á	    %E1	        %C3%A1	        %C3%A1
 â	    %E2	        %C3%A2	        %C3%A2
 ã	    %E3	        %C3%A3	        %C3%A3
 ä	    %E4	        %C3%A4	        %C3%A4
 å	    %E5	        %C3%A5	        %C3%A5
 æ	    %E6	        %C3%A6	        %C3%A6
 ç	    %E7	        %C3%A7	        %C3%A7
 è	    %E8	        %C3%A8	        %C3%A8
 é	    %E9	        %C3%A9	        %C3%A9
 ê	    %EA	        %C3%AA	        %C3%AA
 ë	    %EB	        %C3%AB	        %C3%AB
 ì	    %EC	        %C3%AC	        %C3%AC
 í	    %ED	        %C3%AD	        %C3%AD
 î	    %EE	        %C3%AE	        %C3%AE
 ï	    %EF	        %C3%AF	        %C3%AF
 ð	    %F0	        %C3%B0	        %C3%B0
 ñ	    %F1	        %C3%B1	        %C3%B1
 ò	    %F2	        %C3%B2	        %C3%B2
 ó	    %F3	        %C3%B3	        %C3%B3
 ô	    %F4	        %C3%B4	        %C3%B4
 õ	    %F5	        %C3%B5	        %C3%B5
 ö	    %F6	        %C3%B6	        %C3%B6
 ÷	    %F7	        %C3%B7	        %C3%B7
 ø	    %F8	        %C3%B8	        %C3%B8
 ù	    %F9	        %C3%B9	        %C3%B9
 ú	    %FA	        %C3%BA	        %C3%BA
 û	    %FB	        %C3%BB	        %C3%BB
 ü	    %FC	        %C3%BC	        %C3%BC
 ý	    %FD	        %C3%BD	        %C3%BD
 þ	    %FE	        %C3%BE	        %C3%BE
 ÿ	    %FF	        %C3%BF	        %C3%BF

Differences between encodeURI, encodeURIComponent, and escape:
Unicode (non-ASCII) characters

As a simple example of Unicode (non-ASCII) characters, the table below shows the URL encodings for part of the Cyrillic subset of the Unicode character set (\u0410 thru \u042F). Note that the same Unicode character may produce the encoding %uXXXX if you use escape and the encoding %XX%XX if you use encodeURI or encodeURIComponent. Importantly, the functions escape,encodeURI, and encodeURIComponent work like that for other parts of the Unicode character set as well: only the escape function may return the encoding of the form %uXXXX.

chr    escape(chr)   encodeURI(chr)  encodeURIComponent(chr)
 А	 %u0410	        %D0%90	        %D0%90
 Б	 %u0411	        %D0%91	        %D0%91
 В	 %u0412	        %D0%92	        %D0%92
 Г	 %u0413	        %D0%93	        %D0%93
 Д	 %u0414	        %D0%94	        %D0%94
 Е	 %u0415	        %D0%95	        %D0%95
 Ж	 %u0416	        %D0%96	        %D0%96
 З	 %u0417	        %D0%97	        %D0%97
 И	 %u0418	        %D0%98	        %D0%98
 Й	 %u0419	        %D0%99	        %D0%99
 К	 %u041A	        %D0%9A	        %D0%9A
 Л	 %u041B	        %D0%9B	        %D0%9B
 М	 %u041C	        %D0%9C	        %D0%9C
 Н	 %u041D	        %D0%9D	        %D0%9D
 О	 %u041E	        %D0%9E	        %D0%9E
 П	 %u041F	        %D0%9F	        %D0%9F
 Р	 %u0420	        %D0%A0	        %D0%A0
 С	 %u0421	        %D0%A1	        %D0%A1
 Т	 %u0422	        %D0%A2	        %D0%A2
 У	 %u0423	        %D0%A3	        %D0%A3
 Ф	 %u0424	        %D0%A4	        %D0%A4
 Х	 %u0425	        %D0%A5	        %D0%A5
 Ц	 %u0426	        %D0%A6	        %D0%A6
 Ч	 %u0427	        %D0%A7	        %D0%A7
 Ш	 %u0428	        %D0%A8	        %D0%A8
 Щ	 %u0429	        %D0%A9	        %D0%A9
 Ъ	 %u042A	        %D0%AA	        %D0%AA
 Ы	 %u042B	        %D0%AB	        %D0%AB
 Ь	 %u042C	        %D0%AC	        %D0%AC
 Э	 %u042D	        %D0%AD	        %D0%AD
 Ю	 %u042E	        %D0%AE	        %D0%AE
 Я	 %u042F	        %D0%AF	        %D0%AF

Copyright © 1999-2011,

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Posted 2011年04月21日 by gw8310 in javascript

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2 responses to “escape vs encodeURI vs encodeURIComponent

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  1. Excellent blog you have got here.. It’s hard to find high-quality writing like yours nowadays.
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